山形大学紀要(教育科学) 第13巻 第2号(2003)001-032(095-126)

J.S.バッハ無伴奏ヴァイオリンのためのパルティータ
第3番ホ長調BMV1006の奏法研究

河野芳春

1996年に開始したJ.S.バッハ無伴奏ヴァイオリンのためのソナタとパルティータ, 全6曲のチクルス研究は, これまで2度の全曲公開演奏を含め, 「奏法研究」と題して論述する形で進めてきた。今回は, 終曲のパルティータ第3番を取り上げ, チクルスを包括する中で本曲の意義について考察, その奏法に自らのヴァージョンを付して研究を結ぶ。そのために本稿を3部に分け, 総括を所感としてT部にまとめ, 従前の研究を包括したパルティータの比較的考察をU部にて試み, 本曲の奏法に絡む運弓法, 運指法, 強弱法等について, ここ百年に及ぶ13の版を照査し, それらを踏まえ自らの案をV部に交える。これに関しては他の文献をも参照するが, 基本的にはこれまで同様, バッハ(以後J.S.を省略)の自筆譜に基づく原典版(Urtext )注1)を奏出の理念に据えたい。




A study on How to Play J.S.Bach's Partita
No.3 for violin solo in E major BWV 1006

Yoshiharu KOHNO

Partita No.3in E major BWV1006, which concludes the Six Unaccompanied Sonatas and Partitas for Violin by J. S. Bach,is described to be "as bright as the sun" or to have "a celestial merriness", and its content is so magnificent that it lights up even all six pieces that make up the Zyklus. I have discussed the source of this cheerfulness by also referring to the social conditionsas well as the circumstances surrounding music back then; in Part I, I also remarked that this Partita is "the perfect picture of supreme bliss"in my comprehensive interpretation of the entire Zyklus, and in PartII, I made an attempt at comparing this Partita with the other two Partitas, and lastly, in Part III, I made conclusive statements limited to the style of rendition for this Partita.
According to the classification by genre of Thematisch systematisches Verzeichnis der Werke J.S. Bachs(Thematic and Systematic Catalogue of Works by J. S. Bach)published in 1950 by
Wolfgang Schmieder(1901−90), a music bibliographer of Germany, the pieces of chamber music are labelled BWV1001−1040 by the BWV(Bach Werke Verzeichnis )numbering system, and the Zyklus discussed here is listed at the very top of this genre of chamber music.
In other words, while this numbering of the Zyklus may not be a chronological indication of the years of composition, Bach himself has clearly and consecutively numbered the pages of his handwritten scores, which means that the order of musical pieces remains immovable. This fact was particularly meaningful and effective in this comprehensive research. What drew my attention the most was that while Bach almost always started a new page for the beginning of a new piece, he exceptionally continued to compose, without any pause, on the very same page in the case of Partita No.2 and Sonata No.3 which represent the most contrasting and dramatic transition from darkness to light. Here, we have glimpses of Bach's intentions to avoid disparity of contents and to somehow link the thread of the Zyklus.
Consequently, my impressions that this Zyklus is a scenario of the period when Bach lived in Koten, as I stated in my first paper of this research, take on even greater reality, and the pieces of music evolve together with the passage of time, and dramatic development taking place continuously. So, if we regard Sonata No.1 and Partita No.1 as the ,<>, Sonata No.2 and Partita No.2 asfar as thegiga, for their relation and similarity with the opening section, will correspond to <>. Then, if the Chaconne, which makes up the climax of the Zyklus with its dramatic content, is seen as <>, then Sonata No.3 and Partita No.3 automatically loom up as the <>. If we were to lay before our eyes all the works composed by Bach, the chronological order of the years of composition may not necessarily correspond to the BWV list. Nevertheless, Bach must have included some profound meaning when inscribing "Libro Primo (First Volume )" on the cover of his own collection in this order. Itwas in 1720, the very year inscribed on the cover of his handwritten score that Bach, who used to reminisce that "My days in Koten (1717−1723) were the happiest days of my life.", was obliged to part forever with his beloved wife Maria Barbara. Furthermore, there is no indication of the name of the person to whom Bach wished to dedicate this piece of work, so grandiose and magnificent. For such reasons, it has occurred to me that the inscription of this year conceals Bach’s profound intentions of dedicating this work to Maria Barbara as a requiem at a time when he also had to care about Anna Magdalena, his second wife, who was apparently already visiting the court of Koten around that period.
As for the style of rendition, it is categorized into bowing, fingering and dynamics, according to which I compiled my own version of the score of the large-scale prelude, by grouping it into subdivisions, while also adopting the interpretations seen in other scores for the convenience of the players and researchers. In each and every one of the thirteen versions which I consulted for reference, the style of rendition and marks indicating interpretation reflect the tendencies of the times, national characters and the relation between master and pupil, and so on. At the same time, with the passage of time, rather than personal interpretations which were once the mainstream, the decipherment of original handwritten scores came to be adopted extensively. Each version proved to be extremely significant and beneficial; the Capet version richly weaves in subtle and unconventional ideas, the Busch version recommends polyphonic fingering combined with keen insight,
Wronski suggests a handy and simple style of rendition, Szeryng is unmistakably the most
familiar, etc.
Lastly, I would like to herein express my deepest gratitude to Professor Takaya Urakawa of the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music who so kindly instructed me on the basics of this study in 1996 during my home research. Without Professor Urakawa's thoughtful and thorough advice and instructions, I would most certainly not have succeeded in completing this research of mine.
I would also like to add that, other than the performances I have made of this musical work at recitals so far, this rendition was presented in public during the "Second Evening of the Recital of All Six Unaccompanied Sonatas and Partitas for Violin by J.S.Bach"held on Friday, May 9th, 1997 from 6:30 p.m., at the Bunshoukan Hall of Yamagata Prefecture as well as during the "Second Day of the Recital of All Six Unaccompanied Sonatas and Partitas by J.S. Bach in Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary Since the Church's Foundation and the 250th
Anniversary Since Bach's Death" in the hall of the Yamagata Catholic Church, on Saturday, May 20th, 2000, from 4 p.m.



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