The Benibana Museum (The Safflower Museum)


A.D. Events
927 "Benibana" appeared in the "Engishiki" (延喜式), but any tax was not obliged to Dewa (出羽) country.
1573~ Benibana cultivation was prevalent around Kahoku area. (The Anrakuji Temple documents)
1577 Nobunaga Oda gave fifty kins (斤) of beni to Jurou Shiratori as a return of tribute of a steed.
1672 The official rice piled cargos was begun to sail from Sakata by the western sea route.
1680 The return cargo of benibana was wrecked at the offing of Sado Island (佐渡ヶ島). The principal image of Buddha of the Jionji Temple(慈恩寺) was lost. (The Jionji Temple documents)
1682 A wholesaler of benibana in Kyoto made the system of a mutural finance "Inarikou" (稲荷講).
1683 A wadded silk garment came into vogue in Kyoto, and the regulation of garments was issued for women.
1689 Basho Matsuo made the tour to Tohoku.
1699 Articles of benibana were begun to be recorded. (The record of Omachi <河北町大町>)
1703 The prosperity of Oishida along the Mogami River could be seen.
1711 The foundation of beni-dyeing was used as a souvenir.
1716 Rainless weather. The price of benibana rose up. The Kyoho Reform (享保の改革) was started.
1719 A heavy rain and a big flood occurred. A chain of ship-wrecks also happened. Lack of benibana made its price rise up. Eighty ryos per a "da" (駄).
1722 High price of benibana in Kyoto. The merchants there got a lot of profits. The Ordinance of Thrifty was issued.
1725 A big flood occurred in May. The lack of benibana was counted about 400 das.
1729 The long drought lasted. Farmers and merchants were at a loss because of lack of benibana.
1730 Meibutsu-Beni-no-sode (『名物紅乃袖』) was written.
1733 The prosperity of Yudono-san visiting (湯殿山詣で).
1735 The Shogunate recognized benibana wholesaling right. The direct selling of the producers was prohibited.
1738 Benibana wholesalers made a complaint to the shippers for the deterioration of benibana.
1740 Jinemon Hiiragiya (柊屋甚右衛門), with six members as a representative of wholesalers, sued "Inarikou" to the Kyoto Office of the Shogunate, but the decision was not done.
1741 The Authority permitted "Beni-ko-ya" (紅粉屋) to buy benibana in cash.
1752 Kyube and Gihe (久兵衛、儀兵衛) of Yachi made a movement to found "Benibana market" in Kyoto.
   In this year, benibana was a good harvest. Yachi area had also a good rice harvest.
1755 About 340 to 350 "das" were producted in Yachi area. A big famine suffered the farmers and other people.
1765 The monopoly of benibana trading in Kyoto was broken. Mogami-benibana's price rose up, which pleased the farmers in Mogami. About this period "Furyu- matsunoki-makura" (『風流松の木枕』) was described.
1766 A benibana cargo was upset on June 29 and eleven sailors were dead.
1772 The benibana wholesalers in Kyoto applied to the Shogunate for monopolization of benibana.
1788 Koshouken Furukawa (古川古松軒) described "Touyu-zakki"(『東遊雑記』).
1789 The sumptuary law for furniture, beni-dyed costumes, and utensils was issued.
1801 Benibana was a bad harvest, because of a slight drought. In Kyoto, economic condition was stagnated.
1802 The weather was unstable. A benibana cargo was wrecked at the offing of Noto Peninsula (能登半島). The Yachi merchants were given lot of damage.
1806 A big flood occurred in May. Lot of benibana were flowed away.
1808 Dried benibana's price went down. Many flowers were left in the lands. The people in Mogami were depressed.
1822 Kiemon Ota (太田幾右衛門) in Ushirozawa (後沢) was ordered the beni-mochi by Prince Fushimi (伏見宮).
1824 A spell of dry weather lasted. The seeds of benibana were sown twice but it was a poor harvest. The farmer suffered from it.
1830 A big flood occurred and benibana was a poor harvest. Lot of insect plagues also occurred.
1833 The terrible famine attacked people. A poor benibana harvest. Benebana seeds were forbidden to convey to other areas.
1836 The benibana traders donated Benibana Stone Lanterns to the Sumiyoshi Shrine.
1840 Two ships were wrecked at the offing of Imamachi (今町), Niigata. Many Yamagata merchants were seriously damaged.
1841 The Tenpo Reform Bill (天保の改革) was issued.
1842 The remove of control of the Mogami River's sailing. Yachi regained the prosperity. A big fire at Aramachi Village (荒町村). The Deity Shrine (神明宮) was refounded by benibana merchants.
1853 The Stone Lanterns were built at the Shimomaki-hakusan Shrine (下槙白山神社) by Rinbe Motoki (本木林兵衛), and Himeji (姫路) merchants.
   Musha-gura (武者蔵) was built at the Benibana Museum.
1854 The picture of fusuma (襖絵) was painted in the Zashiki-gura.
1855 A benibana cargo was wrecked at the offing of Wakasa (若狭). Merchants of Yachi and Yamagata were greatly damaged.
1856 Five hundred of Buddha's disciples statues were donated to the Jourinji Temple (定林寺) by benibana merchants.
1859 The Ansei Treaty of Opening Country to the Western World was concluded. Foreign dyeing agent (beni) was begun to be imported.
1863 A drought let benibana harvest slight. The benibana diary was begun to be describes. The Goshuin-gura was built in the Benibana Museum.
1864 A normal harvest of benibana. A big fire broke out in Kyoto. The price of benibana was raised up.
1866 A big fire in Yachi and a big flood occurred. Lot of benibana was swept away.
    Sawabata-swords were prosperously forged.
1875 A big flood along the Mogami River. Many benibana cultivators were suffered from being carried away of benibana.
   Mulberry trees were begun to be planted.
1877 The 1st Domestic Industrial Exhibition was held. Yamagata Prefecture exhibited benibana as a prefectural flower.
1881 No records of the market price of benibana from this year on.
1899 Eiji Iwabuchi (岩淵栄治), the late proprietor, donated beni-mochi at the Ceremony of Koutai Shrine (皇太神宮).
1916 A new benibana song was sweeping.
1928 The Farmer's Association of Dewa Village dedicated beni-mochi to Emperor's Coronation Ceremony via Takada Company.
1965 The Benibana Production Allied Corporation of Yamagata Prefecture was founded.
1980 The name of "Kahoku Benibana Country" was adopted.
1984 The Benibana Museum was opened.
1986 The Benibana House was opend.

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  1. Benibana (Safflower : Carthamus Tinctorius) Revived
  2. From the Horigome Residence of a Wealthy Farmer to the Museum
  3. Horigome's Former Residence
  4. The Benibana House
  5. Place of Origin of Benibana
  6. Flora of Benibana
  7. Kinds of Benibana
  8. Its Use and Effect
  9. How to Grow Benibana
  10. Variety of Dyeing Materials
  11. Main Plants Dyes
  12. Technique of Benibana Dyes
  13. Benibana Dyeing for Everybody
  14. How to Make Benibana Wine
  15. How to Make Rouge
  16. History of Benibana
  17. Benibana Charmed the Noblemen
  18. Benibana for Tax Obligation
  19. Nobunaga Oda Made a Present of Benibana
  20. Supplication of Yoshiaki Mogami
  21. Anrakuji Temple Documents of Benibana Donation
  22. Evaluation of Mogami Benibana
  23. Prosperity of Flower Market
  24. "Mebaya" and "Sanbe" as Traders
  25. All the Fields Covered with Benibana
  26. Two Haiku Lines of Benibana
  27. Yield of Benibana
  28. Area under Cultivation of Mogami-benibana
  29. Price of Mogami-benibana
  30. Route of Benibana Conveyance
  31. Deterioration of Mogami Benibana
  32. Decline of Domestic Benibana
  33. Life of Mogami-benibana
  34. Kahoku Town - Town of Safflower
  35. Benibana Tradings
  36. Benibana Jizo as a Guardian
  37. Color of Twelve Official Ranks
  38. Rich Benibana Traders and Road of Culture
  40. Conversion Table
  41. Access