The Benibana Museum (The Safflower Museum)

18. Benibana for Tax Obligation (納税義務化された紅花)

The Map of old Japan

Where was benibana planted and grown in this country? How did the official get its seeds? According to the "Engishiki", they gave the obligation of tax to the male of 17 years old to 20 years old. Each had to pay 20 "monmes" (匁) of the flower. The map above shows the areas to adopt this rule. Twenty-four out of sixty-eight countries were counted for its tax.


The old countries above belong to the present next prefectures.


Yamagata Prefecture was not obliged to pay tax. "Engishiki" told that some countries remote from Kyoto were provided an exception to this rule. Benibana seemed to be planted except Kyushu (九州), Shikoku (四国) and Oou (奥羽) areas. At those ages, the circulation of benibana industry was not so largely merchandized. The consumption of benibana in noble society seemed to be accumulated high, but it was too luxurious for the common people to enjoy.

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  1. Benibana (Safflower : Carthamus Tinctorius) Revived
  2. From the Horigome Residence of a Wealthy Farmer to the Museum
  3. Horigome's Former Residence
  4. The Benibana House
  5. Place of Origin of Benibana
  6. Flora of Benibana
  7. Kinds of Benibana
  8. Its Use and Effect
  9. How to Grow Benibana
  10. Variety of Dyeing Materials
  11. Main Plants Dyes
  12. Technique of Benibana Dyes
  13. Benibana Dyeing for Everybody
  14. How to Make Benibana Wine
  15. How to Make Rouge
  16. History of Benibana
  17. Benibana Charmed the Noblemen
  18. Benibana for Tax Obligation
  19. Nobunaga Oda Made a Present of Benibana
  20. Supplication of Yoshiaki Mogami
  21. Anrakuji Temple Documents of Benibana Donation
  22. Evaluation of Mogami Benibana
  23. Prosperity of Flower Market
  24. "Mebaya" and "Sanbe" as Traders
  25. All the Fields Covered with Benibana
  26. Two Haiku Lines of Benibana
  27. Yield of Benibana
  28. Area under Cultivation of Mogami-benibana
  29. Price of Mogami-benibana
  30. Route of Benibana Conveyance
  31. Deterioration of Mogami Benibana
  32. Decline of Domestic Benibana
  33. Life of Mogami-benibana
  34. Kahoku Town - Town of Safflower
  35. Benibana Tradings
  36. Benibana Jizo as a Guardian
  37. Color of Twelve Official Ranks
  38. Rich Benibana Traders and Road of Culture
  40. Conversion Table
  41. Access